horizontal analysis

The horizontal analysis shows that sales increased a total of USD 469.0 million, an increase of 4.7 per cent. Since cost of goods sold increased by a much smaller amount (USD 117.6 million), gross profit increased by USD 351.4, or 7.3 per cent. The USD 552.6 million expense in 2009 was the result of a provision for restructured operations. Although this is not a recurring expense, it does not classify as an extraordinary expense and is treated as part of income from continuing operations.

Then examine Columns (9) and (10) which show the horizontal analysis that would be performed on the company’s comparative statements of income and retained earnings. Columns (9) and (10) show the absolute and percentage increase or decrease in each item from 2009 to 2010. The absolute change is determined by deducting the 2009 amount from the 2010 amount. If the change between two dates is an increase from 2009 to 2010, the change is a positive figure. If the change is a decrease, the change is a negative figure and is shown in parentheses. You calculate the percentage change by dividing the dollar change by the dollar amount for 2009.

What is a Horizontal Analysis?

To acquire relevant insights into how a firm is operating, it’s important to use several years of historical data for this analysis. This can assist in determining what is a definite pattern and what is a one-time occurrence. However, an extra vertical analysis approach is required for management and innovators to make better-informed judgments. This type of analysis is also very useful if an investor wants to determine the performance of a company prior to investing in the same.

The year being used for comparison purposes is called the base year (usually the prior period). The year of comparison for horizontal analysis is analysed for dollar and percent changes against the base year. Secondly, in the second type of horizontal analysis, we are interested in knowing about the underlying trends in the line items of the income statement. For this, we compare the absolute change ($) and percentage change (%) in all the line items from one period to the other. One should ideally take three or more accounting periods/years to identify trends and how a company is performing from one year/accounting period to the next year/accounting period.

Horizontal Analysis in Reporting Standards

That grounded header was pushed through Ivana’s legs which made the goal ultimately be given to Ivana as own goal. For example, following Week 7, Michigan checks in with a rating of 25.1, indicating the Wolverines should beat the “average” college football team by 25.1 points. Despite retaining The Basics of Nonprofit Bookkeeping the top spot in the rankings, Michigan’s rating actually fell from a mark of 25.7 last week. It’s hard to bank on him for much production in this Patriots offense, but given his role in the offense, it’s hard to justify leaving him on the bench unless you have better options.

horizontal analysis

For this example, the analysis will be carried out on the data reported for 2021 and 2022. However, you can do this very quickly for multiple years, particularly if you’re interested in long-term trends. Drag down the cell with the formula to copy it to the other revenue line items, as well as the total net revenue. For this example, I will carry out the analysis of the data reported for 2021 and 2022. However, you can do this quickly for multiple years, particularly if you’re interested in long-term trends.

Startup Financial Model Template

But on the next set of downs, LaPorta couldn’t make an acrobatic catch on a third-and-1, so Detroit punted, and Fox put it in the end zone. The dollar change is found by taking the dollar amount in the base year and subtracting that from the year of analysis. Get instant access to lessons taught by experienced private https://business-accounting.net/the-starting-salary-for-accounting-firm-lawyers/ equity pros and bulge bracket investment bankers including financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel Modeling. Analyze the information to determine if there are any difficulties or opportunities for the company. This might aid the company in generating effective projects and planning for the future.

horizontal analysis

Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers. Learn financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel shortcuts. The priority here should be to identify the company’s areas of strengths and weaknesses to create an actionable plan to drive value creation and implement operating improvements. Horizontal analysis is most useful when an entity has been established, has strong record-keeping capabilities, and has traceable bits of historical information that can be dug into for more information as needed.

BUS103: Introduction to Financial Accounting

Tampa started the next drive with another third down conversion to Godwin on a third-and-6, and that ended the first quarter. A good punt forced Detroit to start at their own 10-yard line, but they quickly moved their way to midfield with passes to Amon-Ra St. Brown (11 yards) and Sam LaPorta (19). But facing a third-and-8, Jared Goff threw the ball away with pressure in his face.

horizontal analysis

Another option is to simply add as many years as would fit on the screen without presenting a variance, allowing you to monitor overall changes by account over time. Now we are going to explain what Financial Analysis is in general, so we can understand more about this specific type of analysis. A further advantage is that it requires little skill to spot anomalies in a trend, while other forms of analysis may require extensive experience to discern whether the numbers in a presentation are indicative of problems. In conclusion, we’re able to compare the year-over-year (YoY) performance of our company from 2020 to 2021.


Horizontal analysis, also known as trend analysis, involves the comparison of financial statement data across multiple periods to identify trends, patterns, and changes. By examining year-to-year changes in key financial metrics, you can gain insights into a company’s growth, stability, and overall performance. Having completed the horizontal analysis and vertical analysis of Synotech’s balance sheet and statement of income and retained earnings, you are ready to study trend percentages and ratio analysis.

Again, the amount and percentage differences for each line are listed in the final two columns and can be used to target areas of interest. For instance, the increase of $344,000 in total assets represents a 9.5% change in the positive direction. There seems to be a relatively consistent overall increase throughout the key totals on the balance sheet. Even though the percentage increase in the equipment account was 107%, indicating the amount doubled, the nominal (just the number) increase was just $43,000. This increase in relation to total assets of $3.95 million is only 1% and could easily be just one piece of equipment, or a vehicle. Given below is a horizontal analysis in excel of a comparative income statement (i.e. year 1 – base, year 2, and year 3).

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